Causality Orientations in the Work Setting: Scale Development and Validation
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionHalvari, H. and Olafsen, A., 2020. Causality Orientations in the Work Setting: Scale Development and Validation. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.16993/sjwop.114
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Causality Orientations at Work Scale, which is based on self-determination theory. Bank employees (N = 201) and dental hygienists (N = 299) completed measures of autonomy-, control-, and impersonal orientations, as well as criterion-related measures including need satisfaction, autonomous work motivation, controlled work motivation, and work-related outcomes. Consistent with self-determination theory, results showed support for a three-factor structure representing autonomy, control, and impersonal causality orientations. This structure was supported for both samples for all levels of measurement invariance, and the three subscales proved to have satisfactory reliability. Moreover, the pattern of results with common correlates and outcomes supported the predictive/criterion validity of the new scale. The current study introduces a valid measurement instrument to assess a core construct of self-determination theory. This instrument will facilitate future studies in organizational psychology regarding all three causality orientations as a part of the motivational process based on the theoretical framework of self-determination theory.