Design and Fabrication of on-chip heating for Electric Substitution Radiometer
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This thesis describes the design, simulations, and fabrication of heating resistors by the photolithography process, and finally integration of a selected resistor through a bonding procedure to the backside of a photodiode. TiW (90/10%) is used for resistor lines and Au is used for resistor pads. The fabricated resistors are integrated into an electric substitution radiometer (ESR) equipped with a predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) to assemble a dual-mode detector module (DMD). This research project is part of the European research project chipS·CALe , which is in close collaboration with Justervesenet, Norway's metrology institute. The goal of this research is to develop high-precision optical power measurement techniques using silicon photodiodes. After describing the process of the integration of the heating resistor onto the backside of the photodiode, the assembly of the dual-mode detector module will be explained. This is where a mix of wire bonding techniques and silver conductive epoxy were used to make a connection between the bottom printed circuit board (PCB) and the top PCB (attached to photodiode with resistor).