Development and Validation of a Safety Leadership Self-Efficacy Scale (SLSES) in Maritime Context
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionKim, T. E., Sydnes, A. K., & Batalden, B. M. Development and validation of a safety leadership Self-Efficacy Scale (SLSES) in maritime context. Safety Science, 134, 105031. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.105031
Extensive studies have highlighted the importance of leadership on safety in the maritime industry. However, current research lacks empirically tested theoretical models with valid and reliable scales for describing and measuring safety leadership in ship operations. This study reports the development and validation process of the first Safety Leadership Self-Efficacy Scale (SLSES) for assessing shipboard officer’s efficacy in exercising leadership for safety in merchant shipping. The research has been divided into three stages, including a content validation study (20 subject matter experts), an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) (n = 150) and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) (n = 396). The results have supported a higher order factor structure with three subscales – motivation facilitation, safety management and safety initiative – contributing to the measurement of safety leadership self-efficacy. The resulting scale has revealed adequate measurement properties with good explanatory power, construct validity and high internal reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.971). SLSES can provide maritime researchers, practitioners and shipping organizations with a tool to assess and enhance safety leadership potentials of current and future shipboard officers. The theoretical, methodological and practical implications of SLSES were discussed.