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dc.contributor.authorHagen, Lene Aarvelta
dc.contributor.authorGjelle, Jon Vegard Barstad
dc.contributor.authorArnegard, Solveig
dc.contributor.authorPedersen, Hilde Røgeberg
dc.contributor.authorGilson, Stuart
dc.contributor.authorBaraas, Rigmor C.
dc.identifier.citationScientific Reports, 2018, 8 (1), 13479, 1-10.nb_NO
dc.descriptionOpen Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.nb_NO
dc.description.abstractEast Asia has experienced an excessive increase in myopia in the past decades with more than 80% of the younger generation now affected. Environmental and genetic factors are both assumed to contribute in the development of refractive errors, but the etiology is unknown. The environmental factor argued to be of greatest importance in preventing myopia is high levels of daylight exposure. If true, myopia prevalence would be higher in adolescents living in high latitude countries with fewer daylight hours in the autumn-winter. We examined the prevalence of refractive errors in a representative sample of 16–19-year-old Norwegian Caucasians (n = 393, 41.2% males) in a representative region of Norway (60° latitude North). At this latitude, autumn-winter is 50 days longer than summer. Using gold-standard methods of cycloplegic autorefraction and ocular biometry, the overall prevalence of myopia [spherical equivalent refraction (SER) ≤−0.50 D] was 13%, considerably lower than in East Asians. Hyperopia (SER ≥ + 0.50 D), astigmatism (≥1.00 DC) and anisometropia (≥1.00 D) were found in 57%, 9% and 4%. Norwegian adolescents seem to defy the world-wide trend of increasing myopia. This suggests that there is a need to explore why daylight exposure during a relatively short summer outweighs that of the longer autumn-winter.nb_NO
dc.description.sponsorshipThe study was funded by the University of South-Eastern Norway and Regional Research Funds: The Oslofjord Fund Norway Grant No. 249049 (RCB). LAH holds a PhD position funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.nb_NO
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titlePrevalence and Possible Factors of Myopia in Norwegian Adolescentsnb_NO
dc.title.alternativePrevalence and Possible Factors of Myopia in Norwegian Adolescentsnb_NO
dc.typeJournal articlenb_NO
dc.typePeer reviewednb_NO
dc.rights.holder(c) 2018, the Authors.nb_NO
dc.source.journalScientific Reportsnb_NO
dc.relation.projectRegionale forskningsfond Hovedstaden: The Osloford Fund Norway Grant No. 249049 (RCB)nb_NO
cristin.unitnameInstitutt for optometri, radiografi og lysdesign

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal