The state of human centred cesign in e-navigation; investigating drivers and barriers in North-European testbeds.
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e-Navigation has been launched by IMO as an overall strategy for increased maritime safety and efficiency, by stimulating and enhancing the innovation of user-friendly services and equipment for maritime customers. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the level of user involvement in e-Navigation testbeds, along with the drivers and barriers, including external environment, to Human Centered Design in the projects. Through qualitative interviews with testbed participants and analysis of web reporting, e-Navigation was found to be user centered but not user driven, and meeting several barriers that constrains the effective utilization of Human Centered Design. The special features of some e-Navigation testbeds are the large funding by, and the active involvement of Authorities, which work as drivers counteracting the classic time-cost-quality dilemma of projects. The role of public institutions is highlighted, however challenges in the communication and cooperation between designers, users and HF/E experts show that there are possibilities for further improvement in gaining maximal outcome of user involvement practices. The results are discussed in light of existing theory on user involvement and practical implications within e-Navigation.