Reliable Packaging and Development of Photodiode Module for Operation at 4 K
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AC voltage standards based on pulse-driven Josephson junction arrays, operated at 4 K, enable quantum-accurate generation of arbitrary voltage waveforms. These devices are operated by biasing the arrays with high-frequency current pulses. Utilizing an optically controlled current source, consisting of a modulated laser source and optical fibercoupled photodiodes, operated at 4 K, rather than an electrical link, is expected to have several advantages in terms of performance. The PhD-project has focused on the development of an optoelectronic module for realizing this concept. Packaging techniques and characterization of the module was investigated. In particular, designs and materials for reducing thermal stress at 4 K were considered. A packaging technique for assembling multiple optical fiber-coupled high-speed photodiodes on silicon substrates was demonstrated. The assembly was shown to have sufficient precision and to be robust against thermal stress. Finite element simulations of the thermomechanical stresses were performed in order to validate the robustness claim. The frequency response of commercial InGaAs/InP photodiodes up to 14 GHz, as well as DC-response, was measured at room temperature and at 4 K. It was shown that the effect of low temperature did not negatively affect the frequency response. The thesis also includes a review of devices, packaging techniques and materials for cryogenic optoelectronics. In addition, initial work on semiconductor simulations of photodiodes at low temperature is discussed.
Has partsArticle 1: E. Bardalen, M. N. Akram, H. Malmbekk, and P. Ohlckers, “Review of Devices, Packaging, and Materials for Cryogenic Optoelectronics,” Journal of Microelectronics and Electronic Packaging, vol. 12, pp. 189-204, 2015.
Article 2: E. Bardalen, B. Karlsen, H. Malmbekk, O. Kieler, M. N. Akram, and P. Ohlckers, “Packaging, and Demonstration of Optical-Fiber-Coupled Photodiode Array for Operation at 4 K,” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, vol. PP, pp. 1-7, 2017.
Article 3: E. Bardalen, B. Karlsen, H. Malmbekk, M. N. Akram, and P. Ohlckers, “Evaluation of InGaAs/InP photodiode for highspeed operation at 4 K.” Submitted to International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering (IJMQE).
Article 4: E. Bardalen, B. Karlsen, H. Malmbekk, M. N. Akram, and P. Ohlckers, "Reliability study of fiber-coupled photodiode module for operation at 4 K," Microelectronics Reliability, 2017.
Article 5: E. Bardalen, T. A. T. Nguyen, H. Malmbekk, O. Kieler, M. N. Akram, and P. Ohlckers, “Packaging of fiber-coupled optoelectronic module for cryogenic voltage standards,” in Electronic System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), 2016 6th, 2016, pp. 1-4. Published IEEE Xplore, December 5th, 2016. INSPEC Accession Number:16520013 DOI: 10.1109/ESTC.2016.7764502