Meibomian gland dysfunction is highly prevalent among first-time visitors at a Norwegian dry eye specialist clinic
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionBadian, R. A., Utheim, T. P., Chen, X., Utheim, Ø. A., Ræder, S., Ystenæs, A. E., Aakre, B. M. & Sundling, V. (2021). Meibomian gland dysfunction is highly prevalent among first-time visitors at a Norwegian dry eye specialist clinic. Scientific Reports, 11, Artikkel 23412. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02738-6
To investigate the prevalence of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in patients presenting with subjective dry eye-related symptoms at their first-time consultation in a Norwegian specialized ocular surface clinic. Additionally, to explore the accuracy of the ocular surface disease index score (OSDI) as an extensively applied tool to assess the severity of dry eye symptoms and MGD diagnosis. Patients with subjective dry eye-related complaints (n = 900) attending the clinic for the first time, from 2012 to 2016, were included in the study. At the baseline, patients completed the OSDI questionnaire. Subsequently, objective clinical tests, including fluorescein break-up time (FBUT), Schirmer-I test, ocular surface staining (OSS), and meibomian gland function assessment using gland expressibility and meibum quality were performed. The association between MGD and its severity in relation to symptom severity defined by OSDI-score was examined. MGD was found in 93.8% of the study group. MGD prevalence was not significantly different between groups based on age (p = 0.302) or sex (p = 0.079). There was a significant association between severity of MGD and dry eye-related symptoms (p = 0.014). OSS was significantly higher in patients with severe symptoms (p = 0.031). Sensitivity and specificity of positive symptom-score (OSDI ≥ 13) for disclosing MGD were 85.5% and 30.4%, respectively. MGD was highly prevalent, not associated with age and sex. OSDI ≥ 13 had high sensitivity and high positive predictive value (PPV), but low specificity and negative predictive value (NPV) for disclosing MGD. This underscores the importance of meibomian gland assessment in patients with dry eye-related symptoms.