Assessment in physical education
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THE AIM WITH THIS STUDY: The aim with the presented study was to examine how the relations between the instructions of assessment in KL 06 (approved by the Dept of education) and the assessment practice in physical education (P.E.) in upper secondary schools in Vestfold and Telemark could be described. Further on, the study wanted to look into in what degree the instructions of assessment were well known to the physical education teachers and whether they believed the instructions of assessment gives a good basis for assessment practice in physical education. In addition, the study also had the aim of looking into how many lessons physical education teachers needed to be able to have enough foundation for assessment to give students a grade. The presented study also wanted to look into what kind of criteria physical education teachers used when they gave the grade 1 (failure/stryk). Finally, the study presented aimed at look into possible differences in the P.E. assessment practice between Vestfold and Telemark in physical education. These results are useful, not only for each County and the P.E.teachers working in those counties, but also for the Dep.of education and everyone who is involved or interested in assessment in physical education in upper secondary schools. METHODICAL APPROACH: 82 physical education teachers from upper secondary schools in Vestfold and Telemark participated in this quantitative study. The respond rate was 63%. 23 out of 25 schools returned questionnaires within February 2010. The participants responded on questions regarding their assessment practice in physical education and their opinions about the instructions of assessment in KL 06. RESULTS: This study showed that the relations between the instructions of assessment in KL 06 and the assessment practice among physical education teachers in Vestfold and Telemark can be described as weak. The reasons for this indication were because the teachers assessment practice had a wide range of use. The assessment practice in general indicated to be both split and/or divided. In addition, also considering that KL 06 has now been in practice for five years. There are many factors that may explain the reasons for this weak relation. However, this study presents results which indicate to have a stronger relation to the instructions of assessment than results of previous research. The mean of using effort, skill and knowledge in the weighting of criteria were respectively 51%, 25% and 24%. The use of effort as a criteria and the use of taking individual premises into account in the assessment were still common among physical education teachers, despite that the instructions of assessment rejected this practice. This study shows that the major part of physical education teachers do not manage, according to the instructions, to give students formative assessment. Physical education teachers in Vestfold and Telemark were known to the instructions of assessment in KL 06, but only one out of four said that they knew them very well. Half of the physical education teachers expressed that they wanted more knowledge of the instructions of assessment in KL 06. The major part of physical education teachers believed that the instructions of assessment do not give a good basis for assessment practice. With the possibility of local adaptions there was a split decision, but over half of the physical education teachers stated that assessment was easier during the last reform, Reform 94, than today. Only 11% believed that it is easier today than during Reform 94. This study shows that physical education teachers needs 20.41 lessons in average to have enough assessment foundation to set a grade. 43% of physical education teachers in upper secondary schools in Vestfold and Telemark needed student participation in one out of four lessons, or less, to have a foundation for assessment. 40% could not pinpoint the lessons they needed. In KL 06 there are no participation requirements. It all depends on the individual teacher's needs and requirements. Finally, this study presents some differences between Vestfold and Telemark as to assessment practice in physical education. The significant (p<.05) differences were the use of the criteria effort and skill, lessons teachers have secondary and/or criteria goals defined, the Page | iii use of taking individual premises into account in the assessment, and the need for participation to obtain enough assessment foundation to set the grade 1. This study indicated that Vestfold had a stronger relation to the instructions of assessment in the assessment practice than Telemark, and that Telemark needs less participation than Vestfold to obtain enough assessment foundation to set the grade 1. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study presents the results of a subject which indicates to be in need of a minimum and standardised requirements. Teachers??freedom and easy assessment instructions seems to be in favour of the students right to an assessment practice that reflects justice and is transparent to other comparable students. This study also presents results which shows that physical education teachers do not manage, according to the instructions, to give the students formative assessment towards the competence goals in the subject. The results in this study also supports previous research. Both Vinje (2008) and Jonskås (2009) showed that teachers were in need of a minimum and standardised requirements, and that the use of effort as a criteria in the assessment was still common among physical education teachers. FUTURE RESEARCH: To verify and explore the results of this study there is a need for more research. First of all, in other parts of the country. It could also be very useful to look at self assessment, experienced vs. inexperienced physical education teachers and finally, but not least, qualitative studies which could explore these results in a higher degree. I believe it also would be very useful to examine whether physical education could become a subject with an practical and oral exam for students in upper secondary schools. When the teacher and students know that there is a possibility for an external examiner visiting at the end of the school year, it could force them to work harder towards the competence goals and according to the instructions of assessment in KL 06. As to the general need for more research, there is also a need for more research for a longer period over time, longitudinally studies. This could give more explicit information about the relation between the instructions of assessment and the assessment practice in physical education.