The growth and phenology patterns of herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae): relation to soil and air temperatures
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonBjerketvedt, D.K., A. Odland, J.R. Lazutka, and J. Naujalis. 2003. The growth and phenology patterns of herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae): relation to soil and air temperatures. Ekologija 2003 (1):75-80
The phenology and development of Paris quadrifolia L. has been related to variations in soil and air temperatures during four seasons (1997-2000). Its emergence appeared to be strongly dependant on soil temperature. Plants become visible as soon as the daily mean maximum soil temperature reached ca. 7 C. Variations in soil temperatures could delay Paris emergence by almost one month during the study period. The plants needed on average 18 days to develop from 10% to 95% of maximum height, and flowers were developed after ca. 30 days. The growth and phenology pattern of Paris is therefore not typical of a light-demanding early spring plant. Its need for a relatively long developmental period is compensated for by its ability to survive by vegetative growth during low light periods. The investigation showed that the temperature sum is not a useful tool for predicting phenological events in areas where frozen soil occurs. Two populations separated by ca. 6 m had a two-week difference in emergence due to differences in soil temperature. Sterile plants were generally lower than 14 cm and fertile plants were mostly taller than 20 cm. This pattern appeared to be the same in different geographical areas.